School Bus Based on Kana Model

Karthi VIdhyalaya ICSE School Kumbakonam

Generally, customers’ ideas about quality are often confused and difficult to see clearly. So, when facing how to plan a product or service, manufacturers have to spare no effort to satisty the customer needs. A precise list of customers’ need is a determining factor. Many methods are available for investigating the characteristics of customer requirements. For instance, it is important for producers to ask customers to rank-order them. The particular method we will discuss here is based on the work of Professor Noriaki Kano of Tokyo Rika University. The ideas which the Professor Kano and his colleagues developed are as follows.

A. Making abstract ideas about quality into concrete It is really difficult for customers to express their needs or convey their needs to manufacturers clearly. As all customers’ ideas made, many requirements emerge, and they finally fall into several groups.

B. Six elements Kano model divides the product attributes into six types: • Must-be attribute (M). It’s the product’s basic requirement and essential to the product or servIce. If well fulfilled, the satisfaction of customers will not be improved; but if not fulfilled, customers will be extremely dissatisfied with the product. • One-dimensional attribute (0). If well fulfilled, the customer satisfaction will be improved; if not fulfilled, customers will be dissatisfied with the product. Such a type of attributes has a linear relationship with customer satisfaction. • Attractive attribute (A). Such a type of attribute will surprise the customer and cause satisfaction. But if it doesn’t exist, it will not cause dissatisfaction. • Indifferent attribute (1). The attribute doesn’t have significant influence on the satisfaction. Customers will not pay attention to this type of attributes. • Reverse attribute (R). The customer doesn’t expect this attribute. Its presence will cause dissatisfaction. • Questionable attribute (Q). The customer gives conflicting answers to this type of attributes.

c. Questionnaires can be used to classifY the customers’ requirements. The Kano professor and his colleagues were strongly favor of that the One-dimensional, Attractive, Must-be, and Indifferent customer requirements can be classified through a customer questionnaire. From the responses to the results of questionnaires, the product feature can be divided into six categories.


In this section, the methodology introduced in Section 3 will be used to analyze customer needs of the school buses in East China University of Science and Technology. As there are 2 campuses of ECUST, and the traffic in Fengxian campus is inconvenient, no subway as well as one and a half hours’ drive away from Shanghai area, the school buses are essentials for students there. Therefore, it is important to research the attributes with respect to the customer satisfaction. By summarizing a large number of relevant literatures and considering realities in Fengxian campus, [mally 15 attributes of school buses are identified, as shown in Table Ill. The Kano questionnaire consists two parts: the first one is the demographic information of respondents, for instance, gender, grade; the second one has 15 pairs of opposite questions divided into four groups with respect to 15 attributes in Table Ill. For example, the questions about attribute 12 “low price” are designed as shown in Figure I. 180 students who study and live in Fengxian campus were asked to complete the questionnaires through face-to face survey. In order to ensure the accuracy of the investigation result, some respondents’ questionnaires were regarded as invalid. As a result, 157 valid questionnaires were identified after filtered, and the effective response rate is 87.2%.

The attributes “fl more frequency” “f5 on schedule” “17 timely after-sales service” “fS comfortable internal environment” “f9 completed safety facilities” are categorized as must-be type. This kind of attributes provides diminishing returns in terms of customer satisfaction and the absence or poor performance of these attributes results in extreme customer dissatisfaction. Citing the attribute on schedule as an example, if the school bus cannot arrive on time, students will waste their time and delay something important, which may make them feel very dissatisfied; however, if the school bus arrives on time, students’ satisfaction cannot be increased. The attributes “fl2 high-quality of attendants” “fl4 good driving habits of drivers” “fl5 no over-speed or over-freight” are regarded as one-dimensional type. Products with these functions will improve customer satisfaction; by contrast, products which do not have or have little of these attributes will reduce customers’ satisfaction when there is no Wi-Fi or water dispenser, but their satisfaction will mcrease significantly if the school buses provide those facilities. The attributes “f3 more stops” “f6 more ways of ticket-buying” “fl3 strong communication skills of drivers” are viewed as indifferent type. These attributes have little influence on students and do not factor into their decisions, so the school bus service provider now doesn’t need to focus more on these attributes. For instance, students will choose to take school bus no matter what kind of way the ticket can be bought. The attribute “f2 low price” is classified as reserve, which means the service provider is thinking about this attribute in the reverse of the way that most customers are thinking about it. We rescored all of the questionnaires for this pair of questions, using answers to the dysfunctional question as the results of functional questions, and answers to the functional question as the results of dysfunctional question.

To sum up, according to the strategic rule M>O>A>I, the school bus service provider should perfect all the must-be attributes, without these attributes, students can be extremely dissatisfied with the school bus; to improve student satisfaction and be competitive with competitors, the service provider should pay more attention on one-dimensional attributes and include attractive elements as much as possible. According to the strategic rule M>O>A>I, the priorities of efforts towards promoting the adoption of school buses are identified. Finally, the customers will be very satisfied if the attractive requirements are fulfilled.